2019 DIAGRAM Center Report

A diverse set of students using tablets and a laptop computer with a number of equations and graphs in the background.

The DIAGRAM Center is pleased to present the Third Annual DIAGRAM Report. It contains an overview of intriguing ways technology is changing the educational landscape, as well as relevant opportunities and challenges, additional resources, and next steps for those interested in acquiring more information. While this year’s report expands on some of the technologies explored in the 2018 report, it also looks at technologies not previously explored in any of our earlier report editions. 

As in previous reports, the 2019 report focuses on technology topics the DIAGRAM community identified as most promising in relationship to educational possibilities. This year, however, not only focus on these community-identified topics, but also went a step further with members of the community who are experts in their respective fields as the authors for each of the chapters. As a result, readers hear straight from the source about how the technologies explored in the following sections are impacting students with disabilities. 

It is also worth noting that this year we have differentiated between computer science and computer programing. This time we are focusing on computer science because computer programming was explored in earlier editions and is the entry point into the larger discipline of computer science. 

We would like to extend our thanks to the DIAGRAM Center General Advisory Committee, Technical Advisory Subcommittee, and the Working Groups for providing important insights and resources. We’d like to give special thanks to our writers Alan Harnum, Richard Ladner, Emily Moore, Dough Schepers and Bruce Walker for contributing their time and expertise to making this report come alive, and lastly, we would like to thank George Kerscher, Richard Orme and Avneesh Singh of the DAISY Consortium who provided peer review. This year’s report was truly a community effort in every possible way, and we are proud of what has been accomplished. 

As always, we encourage community discussion and welcome your comments on this report or technologies you think should be covered in the future. Happy reading!


This work is licensed under the Creative Commons CC BY License. However, this work may also contain some copyrighted content that is subject to certain license restrictions or that may be used only under the copyright fair use doctrine. Such content is identified by the © symbol or by the appropriate license description. You are legally responsible for complying with all restrictions that apply to such content.

Ideas that work.The DIAGRAM Center is a Benetech initiative supported by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (Cooperative Agreement #H327B100001). Opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the position of the U.S. Department of Education.

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